Author: IowaClimate

All “97% Consensus” Studies Refuted by Peer-Review

[1] Oreskes (2004) – “The Scientific Consensus on Climate Change

The Letter Science Magazine Rejected (PDF) [Archive]

(Energy & Environment, Volume 16, Numbers 3-4, pp. 685-688, July 2005)

– Benny Peiser

Abstract: On 3 December 2004, Science published an article entitled “The scientific consensus on climate change” by Naomi Oreskes (Vol 306, Issue 5702, 1686). Oreskes claims to have analysed 928 abstracts she found listed on the ISI database using the keywords “global climate change”. The article suggested that for the first time, empirical evidence was presented that appeared to show a unanimous, scientific consensus on the anthropogenic causes of recent global warming. Between 3 December 2004 and 4 January 2005 I conducted a similar analysis. The results of my findings contradicted Oreskes and essentially falsified her study. On 4 January 2005, I submitted these results in a letter to Science. On 18 February, editors from Science contacted me to suggest that they would consider publishing a shorter version of the letter. This shorter version was submitted on 23 February. On 13 April, Science responded, saying “After realizing that the basic points of your letter have already been widely dispersed over the internet, we have reluctantly decided that we cannot publish your letter.” No evidence was provided for this technically contrived excuse. As far as I am aware, neither the details nor the results of my analysis were cited anywhere. Journals such as Science have an obligation to correct errors, especially as activists, journalists and science organisations have endlessly repeated claims made in Oreskes (2004). The sad reality is that by refusing to publish corrections to a fatally flawed paper, they undermine their own credibility, that of their contributors, and the integrity of science.

Scientific Consensus on Climate Change? (PDF) [Archive]

(Energy & Environment, Volume 19, Number 2, pp. 281-286, March 2008)

– Klaus-Martin Schulte

Abstract: Fear of anthropogenic “global warming” can adversely affect patients’ well-being. Accordingly, the state of the scientific consensus about climate change was studied by a review of the 539 papers on “global climate change” found on the Web of Science database from January 2004 to mid-February 2007, updating research by Oreskes, who had reported that between 1993 and 2003 none of 928 scientific papers on “global climate change” had rejected the consensus that more than half of the warming of the past 50 years was likely to have been anthropogenic. In the present review, 31 papers (6% of the sample) explicitly or implicitly reject the consensus. Though Oreskes said that 75% of the papers in her former sample endorsed the consensus, fewer than half now endorse it. Only 7% do so explicitly. Only one paper refers to “catastrophic” climate change, but without offering evidence. There appears to be little evidence in the learned journals to justify the climate-change alarm that now harms patients.

[2] Doran & Zimmerman (2009) – “Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change

Comment on “Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change” (PDF)

(Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Volume 90, Number 27, July 2009)

– Roland Granqvist

Abstract: In a summary of their survey on the opinion about global warming among Earth scientists (see Eos, 90(3), 20 January 2009), Peter Doran and Maggie Kendall Zimmerman conclude that the debate on the role of human activity is largely nonexistent, and that the challenge is “how to effectively communicate this fact to policy makers” and to the public. However, I argue that neither of these conclusions can be drawn from the survey. For example, one issue that is much discussed in the public debate is the role of greenhouse gas emissions in global warming. Perhaps there is not much debate about this issue among scientists, but this cannot be concluded from the survey, in which nothing is said about such emissions. In the second question of their survey, Doran and Kendall Zimmerman refer only to “human activity.”

Further Comment on “Examining the Scientific Consensus on Climate Change” (PDF)

(Eos, Transactions American Geophysical Union, Volume 90, Number 27, July 2009)

– John Helsdon

Abstract: The feature article “Examining the scientific consensus on climate change,” by Peter Doran and Maggie Kendall Zimmerman (see Eos, 90(3), 20 January 2009), while interesting, has a primary flaw that calls their interpretation into question. In their opening sentence, the authors state that on the basis of polling data, “47% [of Americans] think climate scientists agree… that human activities are a major cause of that [global] warming….” They then described the two-question survey they had posed to a large group of Earth scientists and scientifically literate (I presume) people in related fields. While the polled group is important, in any poll the questions are critical. My point revolves around their question 2, to wit, “Do you think human activity is a significant contributing factor in changing mean global temperatures?” Note that the opening sentence of their article uses the phrase “major cause” in reporting the results of the polling, while the poll itself used the phrase “significant contributing factor.” There is a large difference between these two phrases.

[3] Anderegg et al. (2010) – “Expert credibility in climate change

Climate denier, skeptic, or contrarian? (PDF) [Archive]

(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 107, Number 39, September 2010)

– Saffron J. O’Neilla, Max Boykoff

Abstract: Assigning credibility or expertise is a fraught issue, particularly in a wicked phenomenon like climate change—as Anderegg et al. (1) discussed in a recent issue of PNAS. However, their analysis of expert credibility into two distinct “convinced” and “unconvinced” camps and the lack of nuance in defining the terms “climate deniers,” “skeptics,” and “contrarians” both oversimplify and increase polarization within the climate debate.

Expert credibility and truth (PDF) [Archive]

(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 107, Number 47, November 2010)

– Jarle Aarstad

Abstract: Anderegg et al. (1) state that 97–98% of climate researchers most actively publishing in the field “support the tenets of [anthropogenic climate change] ACC … the relative climate expertise and scientific prominence of the researchers unconvinced of ACC are substantially below that of convinced researchers” (1). The contribution illustrates the predominating paradigm in climate research today. However, whereas expert credibility and prominence may dominate the opinion of what is true, it can never alter truth itself.

Regarding Anderegg et al. and climate change credibility (PDF) [Archive]

(Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Volume 107, Number 52, December 2010)

– Lawrence Bodenstein

Abstract: The study by Anderegg et al. (1) employed suspect methodology that treated publication metrics as a surrogate for expertise. Credentialed scientists, having devoted much of their careers to a certain area, with multiple relevant peer-reviewed publications, should be deemed core experts, notwithstanding that others are more or less prolific in print or that their views stand in the minority. In the climate change (CC) controversy, a priori, one expects that the much larger and more “politically correct” side would excel in certain publication metrics. They continue to cite each other’s work in an upward spiral of self-affirmation. The authors’ treatment of these deficiencies in Materials and Methods was unconvincing in the skewed and politically charged environment of the CC hubbub and where one group is in the vast majority (1). The data hoarding and publication blockade imbroglio was not addressed at all. The authors’ framing of expertise was especially problematic. In a casting pregnant with self-fulfillment, the authors defined number of publications as expertise (italics). The italics were then dropped. Morphing the data of metrics into the conclusion of expertise (not italicized) was best supported by explicit argument in the Discussion section rather than by subtle wordplay. The same applied to prominence, although here the authors’ construct was more aligned with common usage, and of course, prominence does not connote knowledge and correctness in the same way as expertise.

[4] Cook et al. (2013) – “Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming

Climate Consensus and ‘Misinformation’: A Rejoinder to Agnotology, Scientific Consensus, and the Teaching and Learning of Climate Change (PDF) [Archive]

(Science & Education, pp. 1-20, August 2013)

– David R. Legates, Willie Soon, William M. Briggs, Christopher Monckton of Brenchley

Abstract: Agnotology is the study of how ignorance arises via circulation of misinformation calculated to mislead. Legates et al. (Sci Educ 22:2007–2017, 2013) had questioned the applicability of agnotology to politically-charged debates. In their reply, Bedford and Cook (Sci Educ 22:2019–2030, 2013), seeking to apply agnotology to climate science, asserted that fossil-fuel interests had promoted doubt about a climate consensus. Their definition of climate ‘misinformation’ was contingent upon the post-modernist assumptions that scientific truth is discernible by measuring a consensus among experts, and that a near unanimous consensus exists. However, inspection of a claim by Cook et al. (Environ Res Lett 8:024024, 2013) of 97.1 % consensus, heavily relied upon by Bedford and Cook, shows just 0.3 % endorsement of the standard definition of consensus: that most warming since 1950 is anthropogenic. Agnotology, then, is a two-edged sword since either side in a debate may claim that general ignorance arises from misinformation allegedly circulated by the other. Significant questions about anthropogenic influences on climate remain. Therefore, Legates et al. appropriately asserted that partisan presentations of controversies stifle debate and have no place in education.

Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the literature: A re-analysis (PDF) [Archive]

(Energy Policy, Volume 73, pp. 701-705, October 2014)

– Richard S. J. Tol

Abstract: A claim has been that 97% of the scientific literature endorses anthropogenic climate change (Cook et al., 2013. Environ. Res. Lett. 8, 024024). This claim, frequently repeated in debates about climate policy, does not stand. A trend in composition is mistaken for a trend in endorsement. Reported results are inconsistent and biased. The sample is not representative and contains many irrelevant papers. Overall, data quality is low. Cook’s validation test shows that the data are invalid. Data disclosure is incomplete so that key results cannot be reproduced or tested.

Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the literature: Rejoinder (PDF) [Archive]

(Energy Policy, Volume 73, pp. 709, October 2014)

– Richard S. J. Tol

Abstract: In my critique of Cook et al. (2013), I raised a number of issues (Tol, 2014). Cook et al. (2014) respond to a few only. They do not dispute

(1) that their sample is not representative,

(2) that data quality is low,

(3) that their validation test is not passed,

(4) that they mistake a trend in composition for a trend in endorsement,

(5) that the majority of the investigated papers that take a position on (anthropogenic) climate change in fact do not examine any evidence, and

(6) that there are inexplicable patterns in the data.

Comment on ‘Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature’ (PDF) [Archive]

(Environmental Research Letters, Volume 10, Number 3, March 2015)

– Benjamin John Floyd Dean

Abstract: I read the study by Cook et al with great interest [1]. The study used levels of endorsement of global warming as outlined in their table 2; however, I could see no mention as to how these levels were created and how reliable they were in terms of both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability (Cohen’s kappa). Best practice on rater reliability indicates that both inter-rater and intra-rater should have been measured and documented in a study such as Dr Cook’s [2] and I am surprised that this fact appears to have been neglected. It would be of considerable benefit to readers for some robust rate reliability metrics to be included, if at all possible.

Comment on ‘Quantifying the consensus on anthropogenic global warming in the scientific literature’ (PDF) [Archive]

(Environmental Research Letters, Volume 11, Number 4, April 2016)

– Richard S. J. Tol

Abstract: Cook et al’s highly influential consensus study (2013 Environ. Res. Lett. 8 024024) finds different results than previous studies in the consensus literature. It omits tests for systematic differences between raters. Many abstracts are unaccounted for. The paper does not discuss the procedures used to ensure independence between the raters, to ensure that raters did not use additional information, and to ensure that later ratings were not influenced by earlier results. Clarifying these issues would further strengthen the paper, and establish it as our best estimate of the consensus.

[5] Verheggen et al. (2014) – “Scientists’ Views about Attribution of Global Warming

Comment on “Scientists’ Views about Attribution of Global Warming” (PDF) [Archive]

(Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 48, Issue 16, pp. 8963–8971, November 2014)

– José L. Duarte

Abstract: Verheggen et al. report a survey of scientists’ views on climate change. However, they surveyed a large number of psychologists, pollsters, philosophers, etc. The number of nonclimate scientists who responded is undisclosed, and is likely unknowable given the design. Thus, the valid results of the study are unknown, and it should be withdrawn. Moreover, the core method of including mitigation and impacts researchers creates a structural inflationary bias, ultimately conflating career choice with consensus. Finally, an estimate of the consensus is unlikely to be reliable without accounting for the extraordinary personal cost of dissent, especially when an issue is moralized.

President Trumps Accomplishments part 2


Campaign Promise 1: To replace Antonin Scalia with a like-minded justice from a list of 20

• Trump replaced Antonin Scalia with Neil Gorsuch, an incredibly qualified and Constitution-abiding justice

*Campaign Promise 2: To suspend immigration from terror-prone countries

• Trump has successfully enacted a Travel Ban that is 100% CONSTITUTIONAL AND is made from the seven (six, now) “countries of concern” outlined by the Obama Administration. This ban is part of President Trump’s promise to keep every citizen of the United States safe from radical Islamic terrorism.

Campaign Promise 3: To defund and crack down on sanctuary cities

• Trump has implemented a YUGE crackdown on sanctuary cities, threatening to defund them

*- Attorney General Sessions has stated that he is not messing around when it comes to sanctuary cities, and continues in the fight against cities that harbor criminal illegal aliens

Campaign Promise 4: To revive the Keystone Pipeline and Dakota Access Pipeline

• The revival of the Dakota and Keystone XL Pipelines creating American jobs

Campaign Promise 5: To pull the US out of the TPP, an Obama-era trade deal detrimental to the US

• Trump pulled us out of the TPP which would have been absolutely disastrous for the US


• Trump has signed an Executive Order promoting women in STEM jobs (careers real feminists strive for, not “dance therapy” feminists)

• Trump has Launched a Council empowering female leaders and female entrepreneurs

Campaign Promise 7: To renegotiate, or pull out of Bill Clinton’s terrible trade deal, NAFTA

• Trump met with Justin Trudeau (what a joke) to discuss the tweaking of NAFTA to benefit the US more, after he threatens to leave it

*- The Trump Administration has laid out what he wishes to see in regards to NAFTA reform

Campaign Promise 8: To undo ridiculous Obama-era federal agency regulations

• Trump ordered a two-for-one repeal for all new regulations enacted by federal agencies

Campaign Promise 9: To rollback Obama-era regulations on small businesses

• Trump has rolled back ridiculous Obama-era regulations that have made it nearly impossible for small businesses to hire employees

• Trump has already saved taxpayers $86 Billion by cutting regulations

*- Trump has undone hundreds of Obama-era job killing regulations which has helped cause a significant increase of jobs

Campaign Promise 10: To help America’s inner-cities deeply in need of rebuilding

• Trump has signed an Executive Order to give major funding to “Historically Black Colleges and Universities,” helping out inner-cities immensely

Campaign Promise 11: To protect our policemen, the true everyday heroes

• Trump signed an Executive Order protecting our police

Campaign Promise 12: To crackdown on illegal immigration and to BUILD A WALL

• Trump has implemented a YUGE crackdown on illegal immigration and he has started the WALL initiative

Campaign Promise 13: To bolster our depleted military

• Trump has increased our military budget because we don’t want to use our military, but want to be prepared to use it

Campaign Promise 14: To enact a five year lobbying ban on government Officials after they leave office

• Trump has placed a five year and lifetime lobbying ban on government officials for when they leave office

Campaign Promise 15: To crackdown on drug cartels and illegal drugs crossing the border

• Trump signed an Executive Order cracking down on drug cartels

Campaign Promise 16: To revitalize the dying coal industry in the US

• Trump has enacted Joint Resolution 38 putting thousands of coal miners back to work

Campaign Promise 17: To create American JOBS and bring companies back to America

• Trump negotiated a deal with Carrier promising to bring manufacturing and jobs back to the US.

• Trump has met with CEOs from huge companies to work on bringing jobs back to America

• There was an increase of 298,000 jobs in February alone (liberals will say that counts in Obama’s fiscal year, but we know the truth)

• Trump met with Intel CEO who promised $7 Billion investment and over 3,000 high paying (not “shovel ready” bullshit jobs) in America

• Trump met with the CEO of Softbank who has promised 50,000 more American jobs and has already fulfilled 3,000 of those jobs

• Kroger has promised over 10,000 new jobs in the era of Trump

• The month of March yielded 263,000 new jobs, which passes the month’s estimated 185,000 Big League

Campaign Promise 18: Pushing NATO allies to pay their fair share or face the reality of the US possibly leaving

• Trump has put major pressure on the members of NATO to pay their fair and equal share because there are only a handful of countries in NATO who currently pay as much as agreed upon

Campaign Promise 19: To make America energy independent, relieving us from our dependence on foreign entities, such as OPEC

• Trump has taken major steps towards America’s energy independence

Campaign Promise 20: To enact a hiring freeze on government employees to help stop corruption

• Trump enacted a hiring freeze to all federal employees, cutting down on the over-bloated bureaucracy

Campaign Promise 21: Trump could be the president that takes us to Mars!

• Trump signed a Bill allowing NASA funding, including an exploration to Mars

Campaign Promise 22: To undo many of Obama’s unconstitutional Executive Orders

• Rescinding (one of) Obama’s incredibly unconstitutional actions regarding transgender bathrooms in schools

Campaign Promise 23: The repeal and replacement of Obamacare. The recent GOP fallout of AHCA Plan was no fault of Trump’s. The blame solely belongs to Speaker Ryan. He created a shit bill and couldn’t even capitalize to get enough votes. Obamacare will crash in 2017 when individual mandates kick in and Democrats will be to blame. That is when Trump will truly work to Repeal and Replace it with a plan he promised us.

• Trump got rid of the idiotic penalty in Obamacare that fines you if you choose not to participate in the program

Campaign Promise 24: To “Bomb the shit out of ISIS”

• A few days ago, Trump dropped the YUGE MOAB on a group of ISIS militants, killing 90+ terrorists and causing damage to underground tunnels and technology

• He called for a drone strike in Afghanistan killing Qari Yasin, a Pakistani Al-Qaeda leader

Campaign Promise 25: To not take a salary as President

• He donated his first quarterly salary to the National Park Service

Campaign Promise 26: To reform the VA and make it easier for Vets to get more healthcare opportunities

• He signed A Bill allowing veterans to seek healthcare outside of the broken VA system

• Trump has created the Accountability Office at the VA, making it incredibly easy to oust incompetent VA employees

Campaign Promise 27: To create a much needed tax reform

• Trump has laid out an extremely concise, yet effective Tax Reform Plan to lower taxes for Americans and end things like inheritance tax, and to cut corporate tax rates down to 15%

Campaign Promise 28 (Scroll down to see “School Choice and Education Act”): To fix our country’s incredibly broken education system

• Trump has signed an Executive Order giving the power of our country’s education back to state and local authorities


1 (Even though it was Mike Pence) The defunding of clinics that perform abortions. Because no matter whether you are pro-choice/pro-life, the government should not be funding abortions. (Also, if people bring up the Hyde Amendment which is supposed to not let any federal funding go towards abortions, LET THEM KNOW that US taxpayers pay for about 24% of abortions despite of that “amendment”)

2 Huge spikes in the NASDAQ average index and the DOW average index starting November 8th. (This will count for Obama unfortunately, but we know where the real credit belongs.)

3 He has placed sanctions on Iran after they tested ballistic missiles

4 He has met with/talked to over 68 foreign leaders

5 He negotiated down the Price of the new Air Force One one billion dollars in a meeting that lasted just one hour

6 He issued major cuts to the costs of the F-35 saving billions

7 He has opened the eyes of the American public to just how unbelievably corrupt (pretty believable to most) the Obama Administration was.

8 After spending 3 years in a prison in Egypt, and absolutely no help from President Obama, humanitarian and US citizen Aya Hijazi has safely returned home and has given all credit to President Trump

President Trumps Accomplishments

SOME REAL TRUMP NEWS Updated 07/29/17 As you read this remember Pres Trump is donating his paycheck. He gets nothing from us for all of this work.



2 $350+ billion deal with Saudi Arabia ($110 billion in arms $250 billion in trade/investment) creating 100,000’s of jobs in both countries, historic.

3 Pulled out of PARIS ACCORD

4 Had a major victory on sugar exports from Mexico, made Mexico drop the exports % and the amount of refined sugar. This will help our sugar industry and the US sugar mills that produce refined sugar from raw sugar.

5 Notified Congress of NAFTA renegotiation on May 18th. Talks can start 90 days later on Aug 16th, 2017

6 Sec Ross has slapped more than $2 billion in fines on China and Canada for illegal trade practices.

7 U.S. Department of Agriculture has reached agreement with Chinese officials on final details of a protocol to allow the U.S. to begin the beef exports to China (6/12/17). The first beef has been imported to China (06/30/17)

8 Renegotiations of KORUS ( South Korean )trade deal announced on 06/30/17) started per White House week of (07/14/17)

9 The first shipment of LNG to Poland (07/08/17) per Foreign policy

10 Pres Trump attended the Three Seas summit in Central Europe to begin the opening up of energy and other economic trade between central/east Europe and the USA (07/6/17) per Time

11 The United States Trade Representative released its objectives for upcoming NAFTA negotiations (07/18/17)

12 Canceled the Cuba Trade deal done by Obama (06/16/17)

13 Enforcement of U.S. trade law is a prime focus of the Trump administration. From January 20, 2017, through July 21, 2017, Commerce has initiated 54 antidumping and countervailing duty investigations – a 40 percent increase from the previous year. (07/21/17) per Sec Ross of Commerce.

14 The Commerce Department will instruct U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP) to collect cash deposits from importers of steel concrete reinforcing bar from Taiwan in an effort to stop dumping (07/21/17)

15 Since the Presidential Summit at Mar-lar-go, the first 100 days USA made progress on important trade issues including credit ratings, bond clearing, electronic payments, commercial banking, and liquefied natural gas. Also, this is the first time since 2003 that the Chinese have allowed for imports of American beef, (07/19/17) per Commerce and Treasury Dept.

On Economy

1 Unemployment rate 4.4% u-3 and 8.6% U6 (for June 07/07/17)

2 222,000 Jobs created in June per BLS (07/7/17)

3 Stock Market at Historic Highs (Dow up 18%, NASDAQ up 21.5%, S&P 500 up 14.9% since election day as of 07/18/17)

4 US homes prices climb at fastest pace In 3 years at an avg of 7% year over year rate per CNBC (06/06/17)

5 Jobless claims hit 28 year low in last week of April per Labor Department.

6 Thurs July 13th claims report also showed the number of people still receiving benefits after an initial week of aid decreased 20,000 to 1.95 million in the week ended July 1. The continuing claims have now been below 2 million for 13 straight weeks, pointing to a strong labor market. (07/13/17) per CNBC

7 OPEC broken can no longer set prices due to USA energy production unleashed per CNN money (05/18/17)

8 Secured $50 billion investment from Japan Japanese telecom and internet conglomerate SoftBank (12/06/16) per WAPO

9 Secured $20 billion investment from Exxon in US Gulf coast refinery (03/07/17) per CNBC

10 Gasoline at $1.95/gallon in Central NC lowest price in 12 years. (7/23/17)

11 Gas Prices Drop to 12-Year Low for July 2017 per AAA

12 Repealed 14 Obama regulations via CRA saving $60 billion in costs to the economy yearly per American Action Forum (04/20/17)

13 GDP early estimate for 2nd quarter is 2.6% per commerce department. 1.2% higher than 2nd Qrt growth in 2016

14 Federal debt is 132,273,000 billion LOWER since Dec 30th 2016 (as of 06/30/17) per

15 Federal surplus was $182 billion at end of Apr (unexpected) per US Treasuary

16 Consumer confidence increased to a near 16 year high in June per CNBC (06/27/17)

17 Small business confidence remains at highest levels in more than a decade per CNBC (07/11/17)

18 North Dakota experiencing a boom since Dakota access pipeline finished (500,000 Barrels now flowing through pipeline per day) per AP (05/13/17)

19 Keystone pipeline approved by State Department (03/24/17) construction ongoing…

20 1,079,000 JOBS created since Jan1st (per BLS) 1,395,000 per ADP (07/07/17)

21 Directed Dep’t of Commerce to streamline Federal permitting processes for domestic manufacturing

22 Launched United States-Canada Council for Advancement of Women Entrepreneurs and Business Leaders with Canadian PM Justin Trudeau

23 Cut 1.6 billion costs from Air Force one and F-35 airplanes.

24 Regulatory freeze on all federal governmental agencies via EO signed (1/30/17)

25 Making agencies cut 2 regulations for each new one. OMB reporting that as of June 2017 the real ratio is closer to 16 to 1 per Washington Examiner (07/19/17)

26 Saw the opening of the first NEW COAL MINE IN PA in YEARS creating 70 jobs at the mine and more than 400+ supporting jobs in the community. (06/10/17) Per foxnews.

27 Coal prices for Central Appalachian coal has increased 8.95% this year. Increasing the economy for SE OH, SW PA, VA, MD and WVA

28 Maine unemployment at 32 year low. The State dept of unemployment forced to layoff people because of lack of claims (06/14/17) per Bangordailynews

29 Food Stamp spending is down almost $1 billion per month and $12 billion per year per USAD

30 Black unemployment at a 17 year low in May at 7.5% per Bureau of Labor Statistics. (06/24/17)

31 Coal mining rose 19% in USA for first 5 months per US energy Department

32 1st qrt GDP revised up to 1.4%

33 USA now pumping 500k more barrels of oil per day since Dec 31st. Now at 9.3 million bpd. 3rd in the world only 1.2 million bdp behind Russia and Saudi Arabia per energy department

34 USA is the world leader in natural gas production and continues to increase production

35 Institute for Supply Management says its manufacturing index rose to 57.8 last month(June) from 54.9 in May. Anything above 50 signals that factory activity is increasing (07/03/17)

36 15 of 18 manufacturing industries posted growth in JUNE per ISM (07/03/17)

37 The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) statistics for fiscal year (FY) 2017 show that food stamp enrollment decreased nationwide by 2.9 percent over the past year (07/05/17)

38 Oil exports FROM the USA are running at 1.3million BPD worth more than $1.5 billion per month to the economy. Per NYT (07/5/17)

39 Crude exports from Corpus Christi have already increased from an average of 68,000 barrels a day during the first half of 2016 to 384,000 barrels a day this April NYT (07/05/17)

40 India-based information technology outsourcing company Infosys plans to hire 2,000 workers within for years in North Carolina and 10,000 total in USA. Infosys emphasized Thursday that the jobs created as part of its U.S. expansion would go to American workers. Per Charlotte Observer (07/06/17)

41 Trade deficit fell 2.2 % in the month of May on higher exports and less imports. China imports dropped 6.1% and Mexico imports increased 5.8% Trade deficit for the year is still growing by about 13.1% yoy per Breitbart even with the drop in May’s numbers. It will take a while to turn the ship but the ship is turning (07/06/17)

42 Labor participation rate 62.8% (07/07/17)

43 In June, mining employment grew by 8,000, with most of the growth in support activities for mining (+7,000). Since a recent employment low in October 2016, mining has added 56,000 jobs. (07/07/17) per BLS

44 FICO scores for Americans has hit and ALL time high per CNBC (07/11/17)

45 Expedited the permitting and approval processes of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) terminals and exports, including the approval of the Lake Charles LNG terminal in Louisiana.guidance from the Treasury Department to allow the United States to export coal.(first 6 months)

46 Expedited new pipeline approval and production such as the New Burgos Pipeline to Mexico. (First 6 months)

47 Updated guidance from the Treasury Department to allow the United States to export coal.

48 Signed the Buy American, Hire American EO on (04/18/17)

49 President Trump signed an Executive Order, making it easier for businesses to start and expand apprenticeship programs (06/15/17)

50 FOXCONN making of LCD screens announced at White House they are investing $10 billion into new plant in WI bringing up to 13,000 high paying jobs to WI. (07/26/17)

51 Coal EXPORTS increased by 60.3% for 2017 per US EIA data (07/28/17)

52 US inflation at a 8 month low at 1.6% per BLS due in part to Pres Trump’s energy policy keeping gas prices low. (07/17/17)

53 Pres Trump promoted a policy to leverage $200 billion in his budget proposal into a $1 trillion of projects to privatize the air traffic control system, strengthen rural infrastructure and repair bridges, roads and waterways. (06/07/17) per Reuters

On Immigration

1 Authorized DHS to hire 10,000 ICE officers & 5,000 border patrol agents

2 Secured funding for more immigration judges for deportation cases in 2017 budget

3 Ended “catch and release” policy

4 ICE arrests up 40% as of May

5 ICE arrests are 75% criminal illegals as of May

6 Ice Arrests for non criminal illegals up 150% as of May due to sanctuary cities polices making Ice go to the home instead of the court houses

7 70%+ decrease in border crossings of illegal aliens in first 6 months per head of ICE (07/18/17)

8 No Cuban refugees seen by Coast Guard in Apr 2017 first time in 7 years

9 Open bidding and plans submitted for the WALL. Finalists selected prototypes to be unveiled this fall per CBP official/Breitbart news. Process being held up by lawsuits on bidding process per ABC news (07/27/17)

10 6ft chain linked fences being replaced by 20ft hardened steel fencing at border (05/04/17) per White house

11 More than 3311 gang members have been arrested by ICE as of 07/25/17) per White house briefing by ICE director

12 This year the U.S. has already deported 398 MS-13 gang members back to El Salvador – compared to only 534 for all of 2016 per Breitbart news (05/28/17)

13 Texas has passed a law outlawing sanctuary cities (05/08/17)

14 Foods stamp requests by ILLEGALS D O W N per Breitbart (05/19/17)

15 The Trump administration has moved to reopen the cases of hundreds of illegal immigrants who had been given a reprieve from deportation by Obama (06/09/17) per Reuters

16 Per Sec Kelly Plans are to start building the WALL by end of summer.

17 Travel ban EO cut refugees to 50,000 limit has been reached as of 07/12/17). USA now closed to refugee without a close connection to the USA

18 per Breitbart Sec Kelly has refused to expand H2-B visa program in FY 2017. Update 06/22/17 Sec Kelly will expand the H2-b visa program for a limited number of businesses that are in danger of failing and can’t find employment (15,000 visa) per breitbart.

19 Pres Trump and Sec of DHS ended DAPA (06/16/17)

20 Refugees dropped by half entering the USA in first three months of Pres Trump’s admin over Obama’s admin. (6/24/17 per Washington Times)

21 In fiscal year 2017 so far, ICE has removed over 3311 criminal gang members, compared to 2,057 criminal gang members in all of fiscal year 2016. (07/27/17) per Whitehouse

22 Per Sec Kelly 66,000 mostly criminal illegals arrested by ICE in first 5 months

23 Kate’s Law passed the House (06/29/17)

24 No Sanctuary Cities Law Passed the House (06/29/17)

25 Illegal immigrant arrests in San Diego, Ca have more than doubled from 2016 and 2015 figures per the San Diego Union Tribune (07/04/17)

26 In a reversal of Obama administration policy, federal prosecutors with Operation Streamline are filing criminal charges against migrants the first time they are caught crossing the border illegally. Per and breitbart (07/05/17)

27 Refugee Arrivals Plummet in Week After Supreme Court Ruling on Trump Executive Order per Breitbart and Department of State website (07/05/17)

28 The International Entrepreneur Rule obama era loophole was closed by DHS on (07/11/17). The rule allowed illegals to stay in the country for 2 and half years if they were “starting a business” per breitbart.

29 ICE crackdown in Pueblo scaring some families back to Mexico per the Pueblo chieftain (07/10/17)

30 House subcommittee includes $1.6 billion in funds for Wall in approbations bill (07/12/17) goes to full house for vote. Passed Full House (07/25/17)

31 DHS proposes rule change to increase length (from 2 weeks to 90 days) and Distance (from 100 miles from the border to entire USA) for people to be immediately deported freeing up courts and stopping the lawfare over immigration. (07/15/17 ) per dailymail

32 Thomas D. Homan, acting director of Immigration and Customs Enforcement, said in an interview that since Trump entered office, illegal border crossings have crashed by almost 70 percent, “an historic low,” arrests inside the country have jumped 40 percent and that demands for illegal criminals in local jails has skyrocketed 80 percent. (07/18/17) per Washington Examiner

33 AG Sessions said one goal of DOJ is to totally end illegal immigration (07/18/17) per Breitbart

34 The Trump Administration is providing funding for the Texas National Guard’s efforts to assist in securing the state’s border with Mexico per Breitbart (07/18/17)

35 Acting ICE Director Thomas D. Homan said he is going to deploy more officers and agents to “sanctuary cities” to arrest illegal criminal (07/18/17) per Washington examiner

36 President Trump ordered the creation of the Victims of Immigration Crime Engagement (VOICE) office at DHS, ensuring that our Government can no longer ignore the victims of criminal acts by illegal aliens. (04/26/17)

37 Trump administration has changed the focus of a Department of Homeland Security immigrant citizenship training program managed by USCIS to “assimilation,” a significant shift from the Obama era focus on “integration.” Per Breitbart (07/28/17)

38 AG Sessions announced new policy on Byrne Memorial Justice Assistance grants which provide $100’s of millions. The new policy refuses to give them to sanctuary cities. (07/25/17)


1 Authorities have arrested an unprecedented number of sexual predators involved in child sex trafficking rings in the United States and around the world

2 DOJ issues new sentencing guideline to enforce tougher laws on drug dealers (05/12/17) per DOJ

3 DOJ stops Obama’s slush funds (06/08/17) per Washington Examiner

4 Massive raids on gangs going on across the nation

5 More arrests for voter fraud in 2017 then anytime in recent history.

6 DOJ and DHS ordered to take on transnational criminal gangs (02/07/17) per POTUS EO

7 No tolerance for violence against LEO with a signed EO (02/07/17)

8 Fired FBI director who is and was a nutjob.

9 Nominated Wray for FBI director, confirmation hearing 07/12/17. Confirmed by committee, waiting for full senate confirmation (07/20/17)

10 Nominated 21 conservative judges to the federal court

11 AG Sessions dismantling the Obama legal doctrine brick by brick at the DOJ per Bloomberg (06/29/17)

12 Operation Broken Heart lead by the DOJ arrested over 1,012 sexual child predators across the nation bringing 69,000 cases against them. (06/28/17)

13 AG Sessions has asked for an extra $26 million to hire 300 prosecutors devoted to gang violence and deportation cases per Bloomberg (06/29/17)

14 DOJ drops case against the Washington Redskins (06/30/17) the era of Political correctness is over.

15 AG Sessions continues to back LEO by condemned murder of NYPD on (07/05/17) calling the attack cowardly.

16 April 13, 2017-Under President Trump, The Justice Department prosecuted two doctors and one other for practicing female genital mutilation– the first such prosecutions under a federal law passed by Congress in 1996 prohibiting the practice.

17 June 30, 2017—The Trump Administration sent 20 ATF agents to Chicago to help the city fight gun violence.

18 AG Sessions and Deputy AG visit GITMO to see operations and conditions in effort to frame future Trump policy on Gitmo. (07/07/17)

19 AG Sessions and Sec Price announce the biggest ever Healthcare Fraud operation. Arresting 412 people including Doctors who have committed more than 1.3 Billion in medical fraud including opiod fraud. (07/13/17)

20 AG Sessions/FBI took down largest dark web site Alphabay (07/20/17)

21 Pres Trump took to twitter to push AG Sessions to drain the swamp in the DOJ/FBI week of (07/24/17)

22 AG Sessions issued new policy on civil asset forfeiture (07/19/17) per DOJ

ON Congressional and Executive action

1 Confirmed Gorsuch to SCOTUS (04/07/17)

2 Signed 39+ Laws so far

3 Signed more than 30+ EO

4 Pres Trump signed EO directing his interior secretary to review the designation of dozens of national monuments on federal lands, calling the protection efforts “a massive federal land grab” by previous administrations. (04/25/17)

5 Obamacare repeal and replace passed House stuck/ Failed in Senate (07/28/17)

6 Pres Trump admin is reviewing all regulations. At the end of June 2017 his admin have done away with 860 regulations so far saving $billions to the economy per OMB and Brietbart (07/21/17)

7 Tax cuts and reform moving through Congress waiting on obamacare repeal. On 07/26/17 the border adjustment tax (BAT) was dropped by the House freeing up movement on tax reform.

8 Submitted 2018 Budget that cuts spending and gives a pathway to a balanced budget in 10 years. (05/23/17)

9 Returned power to make decisions on “transgender bathrooms” to states (02/27/17)

10 Instituted 5-year lobbying ban for all Executive branch appointees (01/28/17)

11 Instituted permanent lobbying ban for foreign governments for all Executive branch appointees (01/28/17)

12 Banned aid helping foreign countries provide abortions (Mexico City Policy) (01/23/17)

13 Formed Commission on voter fraud led by VP Pence had first meeting on 07/19/17)

14 Returned the mission of NASA to space exploration (03/21/17)

15 Installing aspects of extreme vetting at points of entry to the USA per State department and DHS

16 Signed Two bills into Law on June 2nd that makes it easier for family members of slain LEO to get benefits and that helps hire Veterans as LEO

17 Sec of VA is starting process to combine the DOD and VA medical records to improve Veteran’s health. Massive shift in government policy (06/05/17)

18 Pushing a massive overhaul of our FAA Air Traffic control (06/05/17)

19 House votes to roll back Dodd Frank goes to the Senate (06/08/17)

1 Senate votes for VA accountability act. Goes to House passed house 06/13/17 major victory for Trump agenda signed into law on 06/23/17

20 Rolled out an apprentice program to train skilled works to fill 6 million open positions. (06/10/17)

21 The U.S. Treasury Department unveiled a sweeping plan on to upend the country’s financial regulatory framework, 80% of which will be done from the executive side and does not need Congress. MAGA!!!!! (06/13/17)

22 Signed EO to reshape the education system of the USA to include votech and apprenticeships (06/13/17)

23 Did away with rules requiring the Federal government to report on the Y2K bug 17 years after 2000.

24 President Donald Trump signed an executive order creating an accountability and whistleblower protection office at the Department of Veterans Affairs.(04/ 27/2017)

25 Sec Zinke moves to purge the Interior department of Obama holdovers (6/16/17 per Washington post)

26 Energy Department eliminating the Office of International Climate and Technology

27 22 federal agency task force formed to help the rural America fight regulations and lack of prosperity led by Sec Perdue

28 Environmental Protection Agency has ended a nearly $1 million program that provided gym memberships for employees

29 5-0 in special elections (GA6 primary, KS, MT, GA6 final election, SC)

30 Sec Kelly dropped many “Pro-Obama Islamic groups from funding” Groups that pushed for sharia law and closed muslim communities within the USA. (06/23/17 per breitbart)

31 TRAVEL BAN upheld by SCOTUS by 9-0 ruling. Extreme vetting will now become law of the land. (06/26/17)

32 ScottPruitt signed #WOTUS proposed rule, supporting @POTUS order to restore the rule of law.

33 Travel BAN now in full effect across the world. (06/29/17)

34 Signed agreement to construct oil pipeline into Mexico per Pres trump speech

35 Opening up LNG centers to ship LNG across the world (06/29/17)

36 Introduced 6 point plan to unleash American energy (off shore, Nuclear, coal, NG,Oil, renewable) (06/29/17)

37 President Trump Signs EO Reviving the National Space Council (06/30/17)

38 Pentagon halts Obama’s transgender plan (07/01/17 per Breitbart)

39 Sec Devos has stopped two obama regulations from going into effect which would have harmed for profit colleges. The Gainful Employment rule and the Borrower Defense rule (06/30/17)

40 On May 4th, 2017 Pres Trump signed the Religious Freedom EO ordering his admin among other things to not enforce the Johnson amendment.

41 Reduced White House expenses by $22 million by reducing staffing levels from Obama levels. Doing more with less

42 Pres Donald Trump’s first-quarter salary donation will help fund the restoration of two projects at Antietam National Battlefield, Department of Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke announced Wednesday per Breitbart (07/05/117)

43 Returned the Winston Churchill bust back to the Oval Office and Kept the Martin Luther King Jr bust proving we can respect and honor both men. Something Obama was unable or unwilling to do.

44 Interior Secretary Ryan Zinke ordered the agency to resolve a backlog of more than 2,000 oil and natural gas permit applications for drilling on public lands per Washington Examiner (07/06/17)

45 The Department of Veterans Affairs announced (07/07/17) 747 disciplinary actions including 526 employees who were fired since January 20th 2017 per CBS news (07/07/17) suspended 200, demoted 33 (22 of which were senior management) and per White house (07/20/17)

46 Sec Carson of HUD announced a $500+ billion “error” in the Obama HUD’s 2015 and 2016 budgets was found by an Audit completed by the Office of Inspector General (04/08/17) per CBN

47 He had ordered that he gets 2 scoops of Ice Cream per CNN so might be fake news:)

48 Working hard to get the Olympics for the United States (L.A.) (07/10/17) per POTUS twitter

49 House cuts State Department funding by 17% in approbations bill (07/12/17) goes to full House for vote

50 The Department of Veterans Affairs has acted to increase transparency and accountability by launching an online “Access and Quality Tool” to provide veterans a way to access wait time and quality of care data. (07/20/17) per White House

51 President Trump signed legislation allowing our veterans to receive care outside of the Veterans Affairs medical system.

52 President Trump created the Office of American Innovation to streamline and improve the Government for future generations. (03/27/17)

53 Starting later this year, all honorably discharged veterans, no matter their branch of service, will be eligible to shop tax-free online at the Army & Air Force Exchange Service with the same discounts they enjoyed on base while in the military per AP news service (07/21/17)

54 Pres Trump commissioned the U.S.S Ford into service, 100,000 tons of America Might. (07/22/17)

55 Pres Trump reversed Obama policy on Trans genders serving in the military via twitter (07/26/17)

56 House abandons border adjust tax idea in major win for Pres Trump’s tax reform push (07/27/17) major defeat for Ryan

57 Pres Trump threatens to end subsidies/bailout payments to insurance companies and congressional staff if repeal and replace of Obamacare is not passed via twitters breathing new life into the repeal effort (07/29/17)

58 In first 6 months Pres Trump has signed more than 150 EO, memoranda and proclamations per White House .gov site (07/29/17)

On Politics

1 President Trump’s job approval rating in the American counties that fueled his 2016 victory stands at 50 percent, according to a new NBC News/Wall Street Journal poll of these “Trump counties. (07/16/17) per NBC

2 PPD poll from OH has Pres Trump at 54% approval to 41% disapproval (07/15/17) per PPD poll

3 RNC continues to have record high monthly funding contributions while the DNC continues to have record low contributions (07/20/17) per all news sources

4 Americans have never felt better, 74% very happy per rasmussenreports (07/20/17)

5 Number of registered lobbyists plunges 14% in 2017 per Breitbart (07/25/17) showing efforts at draining the swamp are getting some results.

6 Rep Steve Scalise was released from the hospital (07/26/17) prayers answered.

7 Pres Trump revived the tradition that Obama stopped of POTUS speaking at Boy Scouts jamboree. He spoke to 45,000 Boy Scouts (07/25/17) .

8 Russia hoax suffered big defeat this week. Fake media not even reporting on it anymore (07/29/17)

On Foreign Policy

1 Secured a 34,000 Arab force to fight ISIS in Iraq and Syria

2 Sent 3 carrier battle groups to NK to pressure them on nuclear program, installed THADD in SK and Japan

3 Working with China on NK but results are not going well as of (07/29/17).

4 Sent Navy to South China Sea to secure sea lines

5 Fired 60 Tomahawks after a gas attack in Syria

6 Got the G7 countries to agree that a nation has a right to control migration and immigration

7 Had G7 countries agree NK was a threat

8 Had G7 nations agree that Trade should be FAIR as well as FREE and that nations can punish non fair trade

9 Had NATO agree to pay more and got more countries to pay their fair share of defense pact (increasing by $10 billion contributions)

10 Have met with more than 100 of the world leaders many at the white house

11 Pulled out of Paris Accord and freed the USA from the economic Slavery Obama sold us into

12 Have surrounded ISIS in Iraq and Syria strongholds

13 Have killed the ISIS commander in Afghanistan and reduced their strength by 2/3rd in Afghanistan

14 Dropped the MOAB on ISIS killing more than 90 ISIS fighters

15 First sitting POTUS to pray at the Western Wall

16 Restarted peace process between Israel and PLO

17 Visited the lands of the three major religions in the world

18 Opening of center to defeat radical Islam in cyberspace during Saudi Arabia visit. One orb to find them and in the darkness and bind them.

19 Gave powerful speech in the heart of Islam about the need to reform Islam and drive out the radicals

20 Had G7 countries agree that refugees should stay as close as possible to home country and be returned when the threat is gone

21 Got the Arab nations to cut ties to Qatar for funding terrorists, massive historic shift in diplomatic actions in the Muslim world.

22 Started the assault on Raqqa in Syria to defeat ISIS on June 6th 2017.

23 Got Romania to up it’s NATO funding to 2.1% of GDP

24 Has the Special Forces helping relieve siege in Philippines.

25 Visited Poland, gave a historic speech in Warsaw and attended the Three Seas summit (07/05/16)

26 Pres Trump’s State department secured the release of American citizen Otto Warmbeir from NK without paying $400 million ransom

27 Pres Trump admin secured the release of American citizen, Aya Hijazifor, from Egypt Jail without paying $400 million ransom.

28 Obama appointed Ambassador to Qatar “quit” during the biggest Crisis in Qatar’s history. What was she hiding?

29 Gave Sec Mattis authority to set troop numbers in Afghanistan to turn the tide of the war. 06/16/17 .

30 Rolled back Obama’s Cuban policy. 06/16/17

31 Canada promised to increase defense spending by 70% (06/16/17)

32 Gulf Countries sent Qatar a list of demands to defund terrorism, reject the Muslim brother hood so Qatar can return to the fold, direct consequence of Pres Trump’s trip to the Middle East. Qatar has since rejected these demands setting a possible military conflict (updated 06/30/17). Sec Tillerson is working hard to solve crisis diplomatically (07/11/17)

33 NATO countries (excluding the US) increase defense spending by 4.3% from last year per daily mail and breitbart(06/30/17).

34 Per Iraq military Mosul has fallen. ISIS no longer controls the city. Just a couple pockets of resistance left per independent (06/30/17) PM of IRAQ declares the complete pacification of the city (7/09/17)

35 Imposed Sanctions on major China Bank for its funding of North Korea and has declared the admin will work to cut North Korea off from access to the US financial market. (06/29/17)

36 Approved a $1.42billion arms deal with Taiwan (07/02/17)

37 Reached out by Twitter to offer help to save baby Charlie Gard and has started the conversation on Baby Charlie’s fate. (07/03/17). UK refused to allow Baby Charlie to leave and he died on (07/28/17)

38 The US ambassador to the UN threatens China and other countries that trade with North Korea with blockage from the USA market. (07/05/17)

39 Pres Trump also increases the threat to use trade access to the US market to stop North Korea setting up a potential for a trade war with China and other nations (07/05/17)

40 Gave a major speech in Warsaw Poland to a crowd of thousands reaffirming Western Civilization (07/6/17)

41 Pres Trump has had 50% more meetings with foreign leaders than Pres Obama did during the same time period. Per Breitbart (07/06/17)

42 US, Russia, and Jordan announce ceasefire in Southern Syria (07/07/17) Cease Fire still holding as of (07/29/17)

1 OLD City walls in Raqqa were breached by US led forces on July 4th 2017. Less than a month after the battle for Raqqa began. Per Economist (07/07/17)

43 Pres Trump got three major victories in G20. Trade he had the G20 agree that nations can protect themselves from unfair trade. He got them to agree a nation has control over their borders and can control immigration and migration. He stood firm on the climate hoax known as the Paris accords and included the importance of fossil fuels. Per the G20 communiqué (07/08/17)

44 U.S. President Donald Trump on Saturday promised $639 million in aid to feed people left starving because of drought and conflict in Somalia, South Sudan, Nigeria and Yemen. (07/08/17) per Reuters

45 Sec of State signed a counter terrorism funding agreement with QATAR giving Pres Trump and the Gulf allies major victory and moving along the impasse in the region to a hopeful peaceful solution (07/11/17) per state. Gov

46 Visited France to hold bilateral meetings and take part in Bastille day marking the 100th anniversary of the USA entering WW1 (07/13/17)

47 President Donald Trump has sent out another clear message on the worsening political and humanitarian crisis in Venezuela, promising “strong and swift economic actions” should socialist leader Nicolás Maduro push ahead with plans to create a non-elected “constituent assembly.” (07/18/17) per Breitbart

48 President Trump has lifted restrictions that had prevented the Secretary of Defense and our commanders in the field from fully using their judgement and expertise. (07/20/17)

49 The United States sanctioned sixteen entities and individuals that have supported Iran’s military and Revolutionary Guard Corps in the development of drones, fast attack boats, and other military equipment.(07/20/17) per Whitehouse

50 The Department of the Treasury sanctioned over 25 entities and individuals involved in Iran’s ballistic missile program, ensuring our ability to monitor potentially malicious actors while preventing future acts of terrorism. (07/20/17)

51 The US has refused to pay $350m in military aid to Pakistan because it is not tackling terrorism, the Pentagon has announced (07/21/17) per FTimes

52 State Department official in charge of diplomatic security bureau resigned. He was in charge during Benghazi (07/26/17) per WAPO . This continues the exodus of Obama/Clinton holdovers at State. Sec Tillerson has down a major effort to reform the Dept of State over the last several months, including firing the entire “7th floor of State” containing the entire senior Clinton/obama admin team on (1/26/17)

The rate of change in atmospheric CO2 isn’t related to Anthropogenic CO2 production.


The above chart much be analyzed in the context of the largest CO2 sink, the oceans, are warming and degassing CO2 during this period.

  1. In 1959 man produced 2.25 GtC per year, atmospheric CO2 increased by 2 ppm/year.
  2. in 1987 man produced 5.5 GtC per year, atmospheric CO2 increased by 2 ppm/year.
  3. The huge spikes in 1987 and 1997 are most likely due to El Ninos, and not related to anthropogenic CO2.
  4. In 1992 man produced 6.1 GtC per year, atmospheric CO2 increased by 1.75 ppm/year.
  5. Anthropogenic CO2 increased by nearly 5x between 1959 and 2014 from 2.2 GtC to 9.8 GtC in a near linear manner.
  6. The rate of Atmospheric CO2 increased from 2 ppm in 1959 to 4 ppm in 2012 with a great deal of volatility that could not be due to anthropogenic CO2.